books, children, future, imagination, innovation, knowledge, stories

Inside Children’s Minds

Do you know anyone or anywhere can publish a review?

INSIDE CHILDREN’S MINDS, edited by Valerie Yule, Queensland: Bookpal. 2014.    Illustrated with children’s drawings, 470  pages,

Children’s stories told about their drawings.  The children tell  how they see  the world, the effects of physical and mental disorders, delinquency, rejection and despair, their imagination about war in fantasy and experienced in reality, and their re-telling of fairy stories and their common symbols.

It is a selection with their drawings from thousands of stories told to me by children, when I was a clinical child psychologist and schools psychologist, and took their stories down in shorthand. It includes research on children’s language.

Are there differences between girls’ and boys’ imagination according to their social condition?  What leads delinquents to their antisocial ends?  Why do later adults act against their own interests? What different pictures of the world do children bring to adulthood?  What insights are there to Theodore Dalrymple’s Life at the Bottom?

The stories in this book show the world as children see it, and how they can imagine things they cannot see – a world of work and play, fairy-tales and space adventures, success and failure, war and ways of living.  The differences between the stories told by fortunate children and those who are disadvantaged reveal the impact on the imagination of a child of stresses, in economic circumstances, war, family breakdown, physical and mental disabilities, and learning difficulties.  As adults try to meet children’s physical needs and cope with their behavior, they may see only the outward life and actions of a ‘problem child’, missing the vivid imaginative life that can hold the key to the child’s future.

The life themes a child develops may be expressed in their stories through symbols such as fire, snow, sinking ships and repetition of disaster. Many stories seem to foreshadow their teller’s adult prospects, and a child of six may already be preparing to hope or give up.

While violence and suffering continue amid Western affluence, we must listen to children, because so many already seem destined to be the villains and victims of the next generation.

Psychiatrist Russell Gardner observes, ‘We use stories about ourselves to guide our every action’

“These stories not only give the reader much delight but also a rare and special insight into how children think.”  Dr Dorothy Rowe.

“Your spirited treasury is full of delights and wisdom, as I’d expect,” Marina Warner.

“I’m immensely impressed by the range and detail of the material. This must surely be a work of value to educators and psychologists .” Dr June Factor.

 The book is the fruit of 40 years of research during the author’s work as a clinical child psychologist, schools psychologist and academic, in Australia, Scotland, England and Belfast.

This book is for the general public, psychologists, educators, and literary specialists.

$31.95.and special price at amazon over the holidays.

ISBN 13: 9781742844299 ISBN 10: 1742844294. Available from Bookpal, online booksellers and Australian bookshops like READINGS, Carlton


books, children, future, innovation, knowledge

Human Rights read by all

Human Rights understood by all

The UN Declaration of Human Rights as it stands is short and intelligible enough for educated people, but language and length are still too hard for everyone. A shorter, simpler version could be understood by all, and be a ready reference.  It could be part of the humanist curriculum for schools, and agreement with it part of the admission to citizenship.

The 30 clauses, set out in around 950 words, could fit on one page, or in large print, on two sides of one sheet.  Its vocabulary should be known by all, because these words are at the heart of democracy. The 30 rights can also be set out as slogans, short enough to list on passports as reminders of what nations require of their citizens.

Our multicultural societies risk division by segregation. New immigrants need more help to adapt, as they must. The whole population needs to know how to help, and to pull up their own socks. Migrants may bring with them values, beliefs and practices that downgrade or restrict women, deny religious freedoms, or youth that has been accustomed to violence. All these problems are in our own past, and latent still.

The Declaration consists of Rights, Freedoms to and Freedoms from, and Responsibilities. Here is a shortened version, with Parallel Text to help students with literacy problems:

RIGHTS. All citizens could all be expected to understand and accept that all people are born free and equal, and have the same rights without discrimination – political rights to life, liberty, justice, fair trials, privacy, security of person, and recognition and protection by the law, to be presumed innocent until proven guilty, and to be given asylum from persecution; the right to a nationality, and to take part in their government; rights to a decent standard of living, work, a fair wage, join a trade union, own property, marry and have a family, social security, education, rest and leisure, and to participate freely in their community and enjoy the benefits of our progress, in an international order that makes these possible to realise.

FREEDOMS TO” are freedoms of thought, conscience, religion, opinion, expression, peaceful assembly, association, and freedom of movement.

FREEDOMS FROM include freedoms from slavery, servitude, torture, and arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

RESPONSIBILITIES. With these rights go duties to the community, in order to be full citizens. No one has the right to destroy any of these rights or freedoms for others.


Here is a very quick summary of what could be the equivalent of a bill of rights and citizenship test for every country of the world. Since even in Western countries they are not all taken as manifestly accepted, everyone is asked to think about each clause.


The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948
For each item, think, Do you agree?  If not, think why not.

  1. All people are born free and equal
  2. Everyone has the same rights without discrimination
  3. Right to life, liberty and security of person
  4. No slavery or servitude
  5. No torture
  6. Recognition as a person in law
  7. Protection of the law
  8. Right to justice
  9. No arbitrary arrest, detention or exile
  10. Right to a fair trial
  11. Innocent until proven guilty
  12. Right to privacy
  13. Freedom of movement
  14. Right to asylum from persecution
  15. Right to a nationality
  16. Right to marry and have a family
  17. Right to own property
  18. Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
  19. Freedom of opinion and expression
  20. Freedom of peaceful assembly and association
  21. Right to take part in government
  22. Right to social security and the benefits of society’s progress
  23. Right to work, a fair wage, and to join a trade union
  24. Right to rest and leisure
  25. Right to a decent standard of living
  26. Right to education
  27. Right to freely participate in their community
  28. Right to an international order in which to realise these rights
  29. Everyone has duties to their community
  30. No one has the right to destroy any of these rights or freedoms.

Summarised by Bruce McCubbery 1999


A short 950-words version -one page of small print, one double-sided sheet of larger print – of the full Declaration is suitable for schools, new immigrants and all citizens, as well as for international use. It can be found at and in an earlier version of this article on Online Opinion, Jan 17 2008, at

As an example of my right to free speech, add The right to literacy should be added to these rights.  ‘Everyone has the right to free access to literacy, anywhere, anytime’.  An implication of this is that writing sistems must and can be made as user-frendly as possibl, while remaining close to the appearance of present print to maintain easy acsess. Lerning literacy must also be made as easy as possibl, including simpl methods of self-help: See.


Short version for general use

Freedom, justice and peace are founded on the inborn dignity and equal rights of all human beings, protected by the rule of law.

Article I. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They have reason and conscience to act to each other as brothers and sisters.

  1. These rights and freedoms are for everyone, no matter what race, colour, sex, language, religion, opinions, origins, wealth or birth, and in all countries.
  2. All have the right to life, liberty and personal safety.
  3. No slavery in any form.
  4. No torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

6-8. Everyone is equal before the law, to have the equal protection of the law to maintain their basic rights.

9 No arrest, detention or exile without just cause and public knowledge.

  1. Fair and public trials.
  2. The right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty. No-one can be held guilty of a penal offence that was not an offence at the time, or given a heavier punishment than what was legal at the time.
  3. The right to the protection of the law against all arbitrary interference with privacy, or attacks on reputation.
  4. Freedom to move within the borders of each state, and the right to leave any country, including your own, and to return home.
  5. The right to seek and find in other countries asylum from persecution (except for non-political crimes or acts against the principles of the United Nations.)
  6. Everyone has the right to keep their nationality or to change it.
  7. All adults have the right to marry and found a family, with rights to free consent to marry, and equal rights within marriage and in its dissolution. The family is protected by society and the State.
  8. The right to own property, and not have it arbitrarily taken away.

18 The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, with freedom to change religion or belief, and to follow your religion or belief in public and private.

19 The right to freedom of opinion and expression, and the right to seek and give information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

  1. The right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association with others. No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

21 The right to take part in the government of the country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. The right to equal access to public service. The will of the people is the basis of the authority of government. This will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections, by universal and equal rights of adults to vote by secret vote or equivalent free voting.

  1. Everyone has the right to social security and the economic, social and cultural rights essential for dignity and free development of personality, through national effort, international co-operation and according to the resources of each State.
  2. The right to work, with free choice of employment, with just and favorable conditions of work and protection against unemployment. The right to equal pay for equal work. The right to just and favorable pay for work, to ensure that everyone and their families can live with dignity, supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions to protect their interests.
  3. The right to rest and leisure, with reasonable working hours and regular paid holidays.
  4. The right to a standard of living good enough for health and well-being, including food, clothes, housing medical care and necessary social services, and with security if jobless, sick, disabled, widowed, aged or with other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond their control. Special care and help for mothers and all children, regardless of birth.
  5. Education. The right to free, compulsory elementary education. Technical and professional education must be generally available and higher education shall open to all on the basis of merit. The aims of education are the full development of human personality, respect for human rights and basic freedoms, and promoting understanding, tolerance, friendship and peace among all nations, races and religions. Parents have the right to choose their children’s education.
  6. The right to join in freely in the cultural life of the community, enjoy the arts, and share in scientific progress and its benefits. The right of protection of moral and material interests for anyone’s scientific, literary or artistic work.
  7. The right to live in a social international order with these rights and freedoms.
  8. Duties. Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.   In exercising their rights and freedoms, everyone shall be limited only by the legal requirements to recognize and respect the rights and freedoms of others, and the just requirements of morality, public order and everybody’s general welfare in a democratic society.
  9. These rights and freedoms may never be exercised against the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

No State, group or person has any right to do anything aimed at destroying any of these rights and freedoms. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying that they can.

Short history of our declarations of rights

OUR HISTORY. The history behind the UN Declaration is a way to teach world history and the foundations to our own history, showing what hard struggles have obtained these precious rights and freedoms, not to be given up lightly. “History” in our schools should include its background.

Magna Carta is the Charter of 37 rights that the English barons forced King John to sign in 1215. It became the basis for English rights, including protection from arbitrary detention (habeas corpus) and arbitrary taxes.

The American Declaration of Independence, 1776, famously states that all humans are created equal, with the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.  And we add, the pursuit of truth.

Liberty, Equality, and Brotherhood was the hope of the French Revolution 1795.

The Four Freedoms set out in 1941 during World War II, following Churchill and Roosevelt’s Anglo-American Atlantic Charter, are Freedom from hunger, Freedom from fear, Freedom of speech, and Freedom of worship.

History also shows us no steady progress. There are repeated roll-backs. Few countries today would score 30 out of 30. An annual Human Rights Ladder could/should be as publicly competitive as national medal scores in Olympic Games.

We can monitor our own legislation for how it matches up, or falls away, and why. Eroding basic freedoms attacks other freedoms. The foundations of all freedoms in the U N Declaration are freedom from fear and from want. Who are the fortunate and free, and what can be done about the unfortunate?

  1. The right to literacy should be added to these rights.  ‘Everyone has the right to free access to literacy, anywhere, anytime’.  An implication of this is that writing systems must be made as user-frendly as possible, while remaining close to the appearance of present print to maintain easy access. Lerning literacy must also be made as easy as possibl, including simpl methods of self-help. –

*  Using modern comunications such as TV, online and DVD –

* Improved dictionary pronunciation gides, based possibly on

* ‘Triple-line’ books that lead from sound-simbol correspondence to full texts on the same page.

The rules of English spelling could be reduced to one page, eliminating unnecessary unpredictable spellings. All that is needed is thinking inovativly.


children, illiteracy., innovation, literacy, spelling

Experiment with spelling aid for poor readers

Anyone can try this experiment:

Put a crib of Spelling-without-traps next to any page of normal spelling, and see who are helped. There are three traps in normal spelling–

  1.  38 very common words that cannot be learned by reasoning or phonics, but have to be learned by rote because they are so important in everyday text, making up 12% of it.  (Research with flash-cards has found that most people can lern up to 40 words – it is hundreds that confuse them.)  These 38 common words are: – ALL ALMOST ALWAYS AMONG AS  ARE COME SOME COULD SHOULD WOULD HALF HAVE KNOW OF OFF ONE ONLY ONCE OTHER PULL PUSH PUT THEY THEIR TWO AS WAS WHAT WANT WHO WHY, WORD and word-endings -ION/-TION/-SION.

Other words have two types of letters that are traps – the letters that are not needed for pronunciation or meaning, which are 6% of all letters in everyday spelling, as in GUARD,  and the letters in words that are misleading, which are 4% of all letters in everyday spelling, as in WOMEN. Omit the surplus letters and change the misleading letters.

Anatoly Liberman =   gives the facts and figures

Normal spelling                                     A crib for poor readers    (silent e kept here)

Other words have two types of letters that are traps – the letters that are not needed for pronunciation or meaning, which are 6% of all letters in everyday spelling, as in GUARD,  and the letters in words that are misleading, which are 4% of all letters in everyday spelling, as in WOMEN. Omit the surplus letters and change the misleading letters.  

Other words hav tuw tipes of letters that

ar traps – the letters that ar not needed for pronunsiation or meaning, which ar 6% of all letters in everyday spelling, as in GUARD, and the letters in words that ar misleading, which ar 4% of all letters in

everyday spelling, as in WOMEN. Omit

the surplus letters and chanje the misleading letters.


employment, future, innovation, knowledge, leisure., waste

Growth as waste

But let us look at our definitions of ‘growth’

Most of our ‘growth’ is waste.

An example is my ten-years’ old microwave oven.  It would not work.  Everyone said to me that I must trash it and buy another. That would be cheaper than trying to get someone to mend it.  I tried to get someone to mend it. It cost me his coming-out fee and six-minutes’ work. Now it works wonderfully.( But he does not get much work. He will soon be out of a job.)

Which of the two alternatives was better for the economy?

Buying another and trashing what I had gave income to the importer and the foreigner country that made the new one, using energy and materials. Trashing it would cost the local council the jobs of collecting it and putting it in landfill, which is getting scarce.  So the total cost of getting a new one would be income for some people.

Getting someone to mend my microwave would be income for the mender – his coming-out fee and six-minutes’ work. It would make less for the economy than trashing it – or would it?

My toaster was on the blink. I chucked it in the rubbish and bought  a new one.  Was the economy helped more than if someone had mended it?

I live in a house, which I refuse to sell. It makes nothing for the economy. If I sold it, I would make some money, the estate agent would make money, the wrecker would make money, the builder of a McMansion on my property would make money and so would all his subcontractors and their workmen and makers of parts for the house.  The buyer of the McMansion would perhaps take out a mortgage and the bank would make money. The McMansion would need more maintenance, cleaning, central heating and air-conditioning than my present house requires.  Selling my house would boost the economy. Not selling my house but living in it would not help the economy hardly at all.

I live in my house and don’t want to go to a retirement village or nursing home. If I did go, it would make money for lots of people, who look after old people ,from the operators and the care workers to the people who look after the financing of it all.

But we need to have jobs in preventing waste, not making more.

There are plenty of things needing to be done, without wasting.  All infrastructure needs vast improvement – repairs and innovation, in water supply conservation, sewage, transport and energy supplies. Sewerage systems can be restructured and rebuilt to stop the current appalling waste of our most renewable fertilizer, and enabling salvage of heavy metals and re-use of grey water at source. For transport, there is the invention, manufacture and maintenance of more types of vehicles that do not waste, pollute and endanger.    Housing and community environments are needed that are decent for everyone. Our present spate of development is building wastefully designed houses that pile up future problems. There are many aspects of rural Australia which need improving. How can the land be fertilized without pollution and run-off problems? What food sources can be easily grown that least deplete soils?  What are the best ways to conserve marine and forest resources, and make it possible for wildlife to survive? Landcare needs many workers;  you cant just plant trees and leave them.

Can we develop plants that withstand climate changes, poor soils and droughts? Preserve Australian unique flora and fauna?

Pest and weed eradication needs manpower more than chemicals. Can we find uses for pests and weeds, since they abound and are hardy, and that need manpower rather than chemicals to control? For example, not just cull – a temporary measure – but get rid of feral camels, using aboriginal desert know-how and skills, and making use of all bits of the camel.  How can we develop cheap means of taking camel products from the places of killing to a centre for distribution?

Can we prevent fires and develop less flammable forests and understoreys? Is a less destructive defence than fire possible against wildfires?

The greatest conservation challenge is to reverse deserts and speed the biological processes that can crumble rocks into soils.

Australian manufacture of products that are more innovative, renovatable, reliable, updatable, durable, beautiful, recyclable and less wasteful has the extra advantage of reducing the increasing freight costs from overseas.  Manufacturing techniques will conserve resources. There will be innovation in artistic and other cultural products of each country that are distinctive and contribute to variety and beauty in life in the world.  Fashions will be beautiful, useful, durable and comfortable, and designed to suit different needs, because they will be geared to the changing population

Research in many fields will be increased, rather than cut. For example, technology will be from renewable non-polluting energy sources, and innovative intermediate technology will be exported as well as for domestic use, using solar, wind, and well-geared human-power (exercise).

Retailing at present is a source of waste.  Most things in shops will be in waste-bins within two years.  Fresh foods are wasted that are not sold the first few days.  Retailers prefer to sell large appliances because the profits are greater, and hence have no call to sell innovative low technology.  As freight costs and petrol costs grow, retail can change to allow more local shopping. Local councils can sponsor local ‘Australia’ shops that advertise locally-made goods. And people ought to respond by buying them. ‘Conservation Shops’ can stock and repair only conservation products. Salvage shops and centres can find uses and salvage for everything at present thrown daily out of shops, homes and building sites, and annually as hard rubbish.

If housekeeping is sustainable and saves waste,  that will be more essential for our economy than markets that produce waste. Sustainable households will need more manpower and womanpower.

Services will include education that is lifelong to produce resilient, enterprising and idealistic adults; Childcare that is leisurely, for less herding and more freedom; Services include decent care for children, the disabled, sick, handicapped and elderly.  This will need three times the labor force than we allocate at present, and opportunities to develop services further. Entertainment programs can be produced that are as fine as possible, giving visions for the future.

Work share can reduce the load on the increasingly overworked work force, while the unemployed will be employed for the dole. Services to the public will be improved everywhere, as a priority.  ‘Invention sabbaticals’ and holidays for workers will help to develop ideas and innovations

Conditions of work can be rationalized. Once it was thought we should only need to work 20 hours a week.  Why not?  Today we have people working 48 hours plus, and others hardly working or not at all.  Skills and retraining can be organized better.

books, children, forgotten, future, knowledge, leisure.

The future of books

The future of books 12 11 2014

Like many older people, I have thousands of books.  Many of them I will never read again, and look for other people who would like them. Others I do read again and again.  P G Wodehouse I re-read while listening to the news – his books are no madder and much less upsetting.

I have two rooms for a ‘LITERACY MUSEUM’, full of children’s fun and teaching books, books on reading for teachers, the best collection on spelling in Australia, innovative materials for teaching reading and spelling,and  the history of education in Australia and overseas – and I  look for people who would like these books.  Otherwise they go when I go, which is a great pity.

Education Departments do not want these books – they are busy downsizing their book collections in their libraries. Some school libraries don’t have books any more.

Many of the books are already museum pieces, but all of them soon will be.


THE MUSEUM KEEPS CHILDREN’S FAVOURITES –  story and picture books that pre-school children have loved and older children have used to learn to read.  Adults can use these books as picture-story books even with some babies of six months upward, pointing to the pictures and talking about them, rather than reading the text.  As children grow older, they like to hear the text, and the reader can run a biro-end under the words, so children can see how the print relates to the spoken word.  Children can ask about any words they do not know, or you can add an explanation of hard words as you read.  “He had a donkey – like a small horse with big ears – and rode it along the highway, along the road.”

Some of these books are now worn with use, but it is good for children to find out that tatty-looking books can be the best ones, because it can be a sign of love and long use. “You can’t judge a book by its cover.”

These children’s books include Stories, Myths and Legends, the Alphabet A-Z, Walt Disney,       Anybody at Home? (lift the tab and see what creature lives there), Bears in the Night ( a marvellous book for concept learning as well as learning to read); Cat in the hat picture dictionary (Children love this, including children learning  English, the New Golden Encyclopedia, Di Manaka aku? (An Indonesian sort of ‘Where’s Wally’,  but this book helps children learn more about the world and the people in it, and Australian children like it too, when you talk about it rather than read it,) Doctor Doolittle,  Flower Fairies series, The Ear Book (A marvellous book for children learning English spoken  language as well as literacy ‘I hear a ding, I hear a dong –‘), the Magic Beach (and other books by Alison Lester, an Australian author,)The Merrygoround – an Oxford  collection of rhymes and poems for children – (to read and sing to children, but learners also like reading it.  One seven-year-old severely disadvantaged girl learnt to read from this book when all else had failed,) My Book about Me, All the Doctor Seuss books – One fish, two fish, red fish, blue fish,The Foot Book,       I can do anything – almost,       Plant and Animal Alphabet coloring book, Ten Apples up on Top! (a great counting book as well as reading book) The Golden Geography – a child’s introduction to the wider world, Old Hat, New hat (marvellous in learning to read) , People by Peter Spier. (This is a really marvellous multicultural book. If it is in print, get copies,)Inside, outside, upside down. (Children love this, including children learning English language as well as literacy),       Tale of Peter Rabbit (and all the Beatrix Potter stories,The Australia Book,What do people do all day? – Richard Scarry,        What makes it go? Also a sheet of lullabies for adults and children to sing to babies .

Add to this list. If they are out of print, they should be back in.

Rather than say ‘It doesn’t matter what children read as long as they are reading’ , the better principle is ‘You might as well read books worth reading’

Find books you like and look for other books by the same authors

This list will change from time to time.

If a book is tatty it often means other people have loved it.

Don’t judge a book by its cover

All the pictures should be ones children like to look at more than once, with CLEAR PRINT.

Everybody likes different books, so find the ones that YOU like.  In a library or have a Bookshop Crawl.   There is a lot of junk out there, so you can dig like a miner in a gold-mine for the gold..

1 Junior Beginners, babies and upward

My First Word Book. D Kindersley. Even good for adults learning to read.

The EAR book, by Al Perkins, Cat-in-the-hat beginner book. Random House 1968.ISBN 0 00 171203 9. Great for letters and sounds.

Gobble Growl Grunt, by Peter Spier. World Books. Marvellous sounds of animals and birds to read aloud.

Bears in the Night . Stan and Jan Berenstein, Collins. 1972. A great rhythm book.

The Ugly Duckling, Cinderella, and other favorite fairy stories

Dr Seuss books, including My book about Me, by Me, Myself

Possum Magic – Mem Fox


National Geographics  Talk about the pictures

Milly-Molly-Mandy  stories. Happy little adventures in daily life. Joyce Lankester Brisley

Books with flaps that open out, such as Who Lives There?

Beatrix Potter books

Nursery rhymes and fairy stories

 Picture books of nature and science and technology and history that are really fascinating.

And there is more!

aged, children, parent, population, refugees

Past solutions to the problems of the aged

Past solutions to the problems of the aged


In the past, how did tribes solve the problem of their aged?

The nomads left them at the rivers that they could not cross.

In settlements, what did they do?  As in many undeveloped countries today – what is that?.

They did not have the resources of modern medicine to keep them alive longer than they remained healthy enough to stay alive – though as Ecclesiastes and Shakespeare’s Ages of Man show, the elderly did not enjoy life, and suffered the slippered woes as the sixth age shifts
Into the lean and slippered pantaloon,
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side;
His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide
For his shrunk shank;
and his big manly voice,
Turning again toward childish treble, pipes
And whistles in his sound.
Last scene of all,
That ends this strange eventful history,

Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everyt

A few years ago the Japanese produced a film called something like The snows of Narayama Mountain about life trying to survive in a medieval village. The village kept itself off starvation by a rule (among other strategies) that people over seventy went up the mountain to die. Seventy was the latest age to remain healthy at that time. Everyone, including the elderly, accepted this.  The film showed an elderly woman planting out seedlings before she was willingly carried up the mountain by her loving son. Her only hope was that it would snow, so she would die quickly. She had had a long life, with everything she had lived for, and needed to live no longer.

children, economick, future, parent, refugees, Uncategorized

Size of families

The West sees a big problem in small families in the West, but the  world problem is in a population  explosion which is greater than can be sustained.

But there are religious and political groups which try for larger families for their adherents. Governments which offer bonuses and government support for children, no matter how many in a family, help the very people who have more children than they can care for, to have more.

By and large, children who come into care come from families which have more children than they can care for, but they have government support to have a large family.

The Australian government has a policy against asylum seekers, but it would be wiser and more compassionate to let asylum seekers to come with the proviso that they do not have large families, now or in the future /

The Australian Rights and Responsibilities for its citizens and its immigrants should include a clause that all have a right to two children per family with government support, but those who have more children than that must be able to support them by themselves.

The refugees from Africa to Europe seeking jobs, and the people daring the deserts of Arizona to reach the United States are part of the problem, with so many from large African and Middle-Eastern families.

Now that modern medicine and hygiene prevents high child mortality, large families in poor countries mainly survive, They can help parents by working as children but then as adults they seek to become parents too.

What can be done about political and religious pressures to have large families?

Why are there large families with unwanted children or teenagers who cannot get jobs even in Western countries?

China’s attempted solution was one-child families, but two-child families seem better than that.